How is the UF and membrane fouling potential for given raw water?

We quantify colloidal Transparent Exopolymer Particles < 0.45µm (cTEP) and from this we can assess the fouling potential.

We add an antiscalant to our feed water. Will it induce RO fouling?

If we get a sample of the antiscalant we can see how it behaves. Will it complex to humics? Will it be found more or less quantitatively in the RO concentrate?



An illustrative figure showing how complex and heterogeneous marine NOM can be.


Biopolymers are assumed to be primarily responsible for UF and RO membrane fouling.

This is illustrated in this example of 2 sites with heavy or almost no fouling.

The only difference in the raw waters is the concentration and quality of the biopolymer fraction.

Of particular importance appears a sub-fraction of biopolymers which elutes at the exclusion volume of the column.
This material is very high in molecular weight (> 150 kDa) and is referred to by some authors as ”TEP”, although it is – by definition – dissolved (< 0.45 um).



Antiscalants are often added in sub to low ppm concentrations to suppress membrane fouling.

With LC-OCD, antiscalants can be detected and quantified in the presence of NOM.



A reproducibility test of a marine water showing the main important data obtained with LC-OCD.